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1. Abbot Hugh

Hugh of Cluny aka Hugh the Great (1024-1109)

He was one of the most powerful leaders of one of the most influential monastic orders of the Middle Ages. All kings listened to him and the pope needed his support.

2. Alexander the Great

(356BC-323BC) He was one of the most successful military commanders of all time and is presumed undefeated in battle.

3. Apulia

A region of Southern Italy.

4. Aristotle

(384BC-322BC) He was one of the Greek founding fathers of Western philosophy along with Socrates and Plato. His views are still actively studied today.

5. Benedicite Dominum

(Latin) Bless the Lord

6. Berzé

Small village near the abbey of Cluny.

7. Bucolic

Charming scenery in the countryside.

8. Burgundy

The duchy of Burgundy was a powerful state, east of the kingdom of France. Ruled by Robert Ist the Old until 1076, he was succeded by his grandson Hugh Ist.

9. Cantus Planus

Also called 'plain chant' or 'plain song'.
That was the popular music in Medieval era, sang exclusively in churches and monasteries with no instruments and only one tone. Gregorian chants were a very popular form of Cantus Planus. You can hear one at the beginning of each videoblog.

10. Caroline minuscule

Caroline minuscule or Carolingian minuscule

The development of Caroline minuscule, was a reform which increased the uniformity, clarity and legibility of handwriting. It was developed in the late 8th century under the patronage of emperor Charlemagne and spearheaded by Alcuin of York. Its alphabet is clear and beautiful.

11. Cena

(Cena, cenae) dinner, supper.

12. Clementia

Widow of Rainaud of Bagé and mother of Josseran.
After her husband's death, she refused to take the veil at the nunnery of Marcigny, as was the custom at that time. She moved to the village next to Cluny abbey with her son and made sure he got a good education at the abbey.

13. Cluny

Abbey located in Burgundy, France. Cluny was the head of the most powerful monastic movement in the Middle Ages.

14. Consecrated

From the Latin consecratio: made sacred.

15. Coquina

(Coquina, coquinae) Another name for the culina, the kitchen.

16. Damisel

Young girl or lady. Same as damsel.

17. Domus

(Domus, domi) In the monastery world the domus was the living quarters for the lay brothers.

18. Eginhard

A monk at Cluny abbey in charge of the young nutriti's dormitorium. He is as gentle as a bear.

19. Extra

Believe it or not but this is also a Latin word meaning “outside of.” Here the meaning suggests “more than the regular homework. Outside of the regular amount.” Think also extraordinary, extraterrestrial, or extra time!

20. Father Eusebius

An old monk who has now retired at Berzé. He traveled a lot, visiting many countries and cultures. It gave him a wide array of knowledge and he is still a sought-after advisor. Abbot Hugh and Father Odo often ask for his opinion on various matters.

21. Father Odo

Odo of Lagery (1042-1099)

He became pope under the name of Urban II. A great marketer, he was the architect of the First Crusade. Renbaudus, then an adult, helped him through different missions.

22. Grand Cellarer

Do you need any explanations? Think!

23. Grand Claustrum

He was in charge of the librarium and the scriptorium.

24. Grand Prior

In a Medieval abbey, he was the second in charge just after the abbot.

25. Great Shadow

Of course you know the meaning of The Great Shadow of Death!

Ahem, just in case, go to this episode to learn more about it.

26. Guy

Guy of Burgundy (Died in 1124). He became pope under the name Calixtus II in 1124. Renbaudus and he kept a close relationship and worked together on the "fake" Codex Calixtinus.

27. Heathens

In the Medieval era, people who did not hold Christian beliefs.

28. Henry

Henry of Burgundy (1066-1112)
Born on the same year as Renbaudus, they struck up a friendship when the latter came to study at Cluny abbey. Henry belonged to the powerful family of the dukes of Burgundy. He was Otto the Red's younger brother and he would have an amazing future.

29. Hugh Ist

(1057-1093) He became duke of Burgundy in 1076, inheriting the duchy from his grandfather, Robert I. He shortly later abdicated to live as monk at Cluny. His wife, Sybil of Nevers, died in 1078.

30. Interlocutor

Conversation partner

31. Ire

(from the Latin ira, irae): anger, rage. The words “irascible” or “irate” are derived from it.

32. Josseran

Josseran of Bagé
Born in 1068, he was the son of Rainaud Lord of Bagé. His father died when he was 3. He was raised by his mother Clementia and studied at Cluny abbey while his grandfather Rodolphe ran the lordship.

33. Latrina

Bathroom, restrooms

34. Lectio

(Lectio, lectionis) lesson, class, lecture.

35. Lectiones

(Lectio, lectionis) Here plural. Lessons, classes, lectures.

36. Librarium

(Librarium, librarii) You can guess by yourself ;)

37. Magister

(Magister, magistri) teacher, tutor.

38. Magistri

(Magister, magistri) Here plural. Teachers, tutors.

39. Marcigny

Priory of Marcigny

Located east of Cluny, it was the first Benedictine nunnery founded in 1054 by abbot Hugh of Cluny. Numerous members of his family (his mother, sisters, cousins) retired there. It was also the fashionable place where to end one's life for the women of powerful families.
In 1137, Adela of Normandy, princess of England, daughter of William the Conqueror, mother of Stephen, King of England and Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester died in Marcigny.

40. Miles

(Miles, militis) soldier

41. Morpheus

He is the Greek god of dreams. He has wings and can take any human form to appear in your dreams. Much better than The Matrix guy!

42. Nectar

Delicious drink. (In Greek mythology, it was the name of the drink of the gods.)

43. None

Mid-afternoon prayer around 3 pm. It is supposed to be the ninth hour of the day, hence the name. It is interesting to know that the word “afternoon” comes from “after none.”

44. Normandy

The duchy of Normandy was one of the most powerful states of the XIth century. Under the rule of William the Conqueror, Normans were feared as their power extended not only to Normandy but also to England which had been conquered in 1066.
By comparison, at that time, the kingdom of France was rather weak and its king was always looking for alliances with William.

45. Otto

Otto or Eudes of Burgundy (1058-1103)
He belonged to the powerful family of the Dukes of Burgundy which was linked to the Kings of France. He was nicknamed Borrel (the red) and was an older brother of Henry.

46. Ovid

Ovid (43BC-18AD) was a Roman poet who wrote about love and seduction. In the Medieval era he became again very popular.

47. Pimen

A drink made of wine mixed with spices.

48. Prandium

(Prandium, prandii) Lunch.

49. Prime

Early morning prayer rung by the bells around 6 am.

50. Purgatory

In the catholic church, after you die, you basically go to Heaven or to Hell. Actually if you are not pure enough to go directly to Heaven, you have to go through Purgatory to be purified before being allowed to the upper floor: Heaven.
In Medieval times, Purgatory became a physical place where souls were supposed to be cleansed.

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